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The Resource Human factors considerations of undergrounds in insurgencies, Paul J. Tompkins Jr., USASOC Project Lead, Nathan Bos, editor

Human factors considerations of undergrounds in insurgencies, Paul J. Tompkins Jr., USASOC Project Lead, Nathan Bos, editor

Label
Human factors considerations of undergrounds in insurgencies
Title
Human factors considerations of undergrounds in insurgencies
Statement of responsibility
Paul J. Tompkins Jr., USASOC Project Lead, Nathan Bos, editor
Creator
Contributor
Author
Editor
Project director
Publisher
Subject
Genre
Language
eng
Summary
The foreword to Special Warfare's 1966 Human Factors Considerations of Undergrounds in Insurgencies notes, "in the desire to understand the broad characteristics and societal impact of revolutionary movements we often neglect the study of the human element involved." "To understand the individual, his reasons, his behavior, and the pressures that society places upon him is at the heart of the problem of social change." The earlier study and this updated edition represent part of our intellectual investment in understanding the human domain. Understanding the human domain remains critical for future Special Warfare operations. Since the inception of the United States Army Special Forces, understanding indigenous individuals and the human domain in which they exist has been a persistent Army Special Operations Forces cornerstone. Relationships with indigenous individuals enable Special Warfare. Understanding why individuals choose to join an underground movement, why law-abiding citizens are tempted to lead a dangerous underground life, why individuals stay in underground organizations, and what behaviors individuals use to survive are key questions that will reveal insights into the individuals that may be our partners. Special Warfare's leverage of and reliance on indigenous forces offers a unique capability. This Special Warfare capability offers our nation's leaders necessary and different strategic options. Our Special Warfare mission necessitates our continued educational and intellectual commitment to studying human factors. Our endeavor must include institutional and individual commitments. This updated volume offers a beginning, and the text will be integrated into our schoolhouse curriculums. The schoolhouse introduction represents only the starting point for each Army Special Operations Forces member's continued learning. Our nation requires a Special Warfare capability. The Special Warfare capability requires intellectual investment and continuous evolution to understand the people that the human domain represents. I encourage each member to read, analyze, debate, and challenge this work as we endeavor to remain the premier Special Warfare capability in the world. ---page v
Member of
Cataloging source
SEN
http://library.link/vocab/creatorName
Tompkins, Paul J.
Government publication
federal national government publication
Illustrations
illustrations
Index
no index present
Literary form
non fiction
Nature of contents
bibliography
http://library.link/vocab/relatedWorkOrContributorName
  • Bos, Nathan
  • Molnar, Andrew R.
  • United States Army Special Operations Command
  • Johns Hopkins University
Series statement
Assessing revolutionary and insurgent strategies
http://library.link/vocab/subjectName
  • Guerrilla warfare
  • Insurgency
  • Revolutions
  • Terrorism
Label
Human factors considerations of undergrounds in insurgencies, Paul J. Tompkins Jr., USASOC Project Lead, Nathan Bos, editor
Instantiates
Publication
Note
  • "25 January 2013"--Cover
  • "Chapters that borrow significant sections of the original edition list "SORO authors" as authors ... [including] Andrew Molnar, first author of the original study"--Page xii
  • Shipping list no.: 2014-0103-P
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references
Carrier category
volume
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier.
Content category
text
Content type MARC source
rdacontent.
Contents
Letters of introduction -- Preface to the first edition, 1966 -- Preface to the second edition: -- Changes since the original edition -- Acknowledgments of original authors and ARIS contributors -- Chapter 1: Introduction: -- Underlying causes -- Part 1: Undergrounds as organizations -- Part 2: Motivation -- Part 3: Underground psychological operations -- Chapter 2: Underlying causes of violence: -- Economic deprivation -- Poor governance -- Lack of government legitimacy -- Marginalization or persecution of identity groups -- History of conflict in the country or conflict in nearby countries -- Demographic youth bulge -- Exploitable primary commodity resources -- Type of terrain -- Summary -- Part 1: Undergrounds As Organizations: -- Chapter 3: Organizational structure and function: -- Components of an insurgency -- Command and control -- Aligning structure with strategy -- Secrecy and compartmentalization -- Evolution and growth of organizations -- Underground and aboveground connections -- Criminal connections -- PIRA as a regional insurgency: -- Evolution and growth of the organization -- Command and control -- Underground and aboveground connections -- Criminal connections -- Communist insurgencies as organizations: -- Command and control -- International command and control: -- Chain of command between committee levels -- Role of self-criticism sessions -- Underground and aboveground connections: -- Parallel structures -- Infiltration of mass organizations and use of "front" organizations -- Methods of controlling mass organizations -- United front activities -- Aligning of structure to strategy -- Al Qaeda as a decentralized network: -- Secrecy and compartmentalization -- Evolution and growth of the organization -- Command and control -- Aligning structure to strategy -- Underground and aboveground connectivity -- Criminal connections -- Chapter 4: Leadership: -- Transactional and transformational leadership -- Charismatic leadership in undergrounds -- Profiling leaders: -- Trait/motivational approaches -- Cognitive approaches -- Psychodynamic approaches -- Personological approaches -- Case study: Dr Ayman Al-Zawahiri -- Targeting leaders -- Summary -- Part 2: Motivation: -- Chapter 5: Joining, staying in, and leaving the underground: -- Reasons for joining: -- Recruitment: -- Recruitment in rural insurgencies: Huks and the Viet Minh -- PIRA recruitment of republican sympathizers -- Campus recruitment by EIG: filling a void -- Ideology -- Qutbism: ideology of the modern global Salafist Jihad -- Affiliative factors -- Reasons for staying -- Reasons for leaving: -- Defection -- Disengagement -- Deradicalization -- Reintegration -- Insurgent transitions -- Summary -- Chapter 6: Group dynamics and radicalization: -- Social psychology of group conflict: -- Social identity groups: categorization and salience: -- Stability -- Salience -- Conflict -- In-group formation: -- In-group biases -- Out-group stereotypes and discrimination -- Competition between groups -- Mechanisms of group radicalization: -- Escalation of in-group/out-group conflicts -- Radicalization through isolation -- Radicalization under threat -- Radicalization through condensation or splitting -- Radicalization in competition for the same base of support -- Radicalization through hate: -- Rhetoric of hate: dehumanization and "selective moral disengagement" -- Escalation of violent actions -- Radicalization through martyrdom -- Summary -- Chapter 7: Psychological risk factors: -- Introduction: Is the disease model applicable? -- Axis I disorders and "Lone Wolf" terrorists -- Axis II: Developmental and personality disorders -- Suicidality and suicide bombers -- Emotional vulnerability -- Youth -- Personal connection to a grievance (political or otherwise) -- Vicarious experience of grievance -- Humiliation -- Mechanisms -- Summary -- Part 3: Underground Psychological Operations: -- Chapter 8: Insurgent use of media: traditional, broadcast, and Internet: -- Importance of media to insurgencies -- Traditional media -- Global broadcast media: -- Media dilemmas and responses -- Insurgent-owned broadcast media -- Insurgent use of the Internet: -- Properties of the Internet: -- Inexpensive -- Decentralized -- Anonymous -- Uses of the Internet: -- Publicity and communications -- Targeting the enemy -- Recruitment and radicalization -- Training -- Fundraising -- Command and control -- Summary -- Chapter 9: Psychology of influence: -- Psychological operations -- Aspects of influence -- Influence as a social process: -- Interpersonal influence -- Social pressures and social networks -- Social identity and influence -- Diffusion of innovation -- Influence as an individual process: -- Rumors as an example of message transmittal -- Promoting the understanding and retention of messages: -- Personal relevance -- Evaluating message content -- Message repetition -- Presenting one versus both sides of an argument: message inoculation -- Combining words and actions: -- Cognitive dissonance -- Persuasion techniques -- Armed propaganda -- Reciprocity and obligation -- Coercion and private beliefs -- Role of narratives in justifying insurgent movements -- Summary -- Chapter 10: Nonviolent resistance: -- Objectives -- Techniques: -- Attention-getting devices -- Noncooperation -- Civil disobedience -- Organization -- Legitimacy: -- Normative factors -- Mystical factors -- Consensual validation -- Communication and propaganda -- Training -- Riots and demonstrations: -- Colombia (1948) -- Seattle, Washington (1999) -- Shadow government structure -- Summary -- Chapter 11: Terrorism: -- Objectives of terrorism: -- Disruption of socioeconomic and political status quo -- Demonstration of strength: -- Strategic risks -- Punishment and retaliation -- Maintenance of security: -- Terrorist oaths -- Enforcing squads -- Provocation -- Considerations of terrorism: -- Unity of effort -- Franchising terror -- Suicide terrorism -- Terrorism planning: -- Target selection -- Intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance -- Rehearsals -- Execution -- Escape and evasion -- Rationalizing terrorism -- Terrorist threats: -- Specific threats -- General threats -- Psychological effects of terror: -- Terror management theory -- Individual responses -- Group responses -- Summary -- Glossary -- Part 1: Abbreviations and acronyms -- Part 2: Terms and definitions
Control code
870706927
Dimensions
25 cm
Edition
Second edition.
Extent
xxii, 372 pages
Media category
unmediated
Media MARC source
rdamedia.
Other physical details
illustrations
System control number
tmp97418335
Label
Human factors considerations of undergrounds in insurgencies, Paul J. Tompkins Jr., USASOC Project Lead, Nathan Bos, editor
Publication
Note
  • "25 January 2013"--Cover
  • "Chapters that borrow significant sections of the original edition list "SORO authors" as authors ... [including] Andrew Molnar, first author of the original study"--Page xii
  • Shipping list no.: 2014-0103-P
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references
Carrier category
volume
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier.
Content category
text
Content type MARC source
rdacontent.
Contents
Letters of introduction -- Preface to the first edition, 1966 -- Preface to the second edition: -- Changes since the original edition -- Acknowledgments of original authors and ARIS contributors -- Chapter 1: Introduction: -- Underlying causes -- Part 1: Undergrounds as organizations -- Part 2: Motivation -- Part 3: Underground psychological operations -- Chapter 2: Underlying causes of violence: -- Economic deprivation -- Poor governance -- Lack of government legitimacy -- Marginalization or persecution of identity groups -- History of conflict in the country or conflict in nearby countries -- Demographic youth bulge -- Exploitable primary commodity resources -- Type of terrain -- Summary -- Part 1: Undergrounds As Organizations: -- Chapter 3: Organizational structure and function: -- Components of an insurgency -- Command and control -- Aligning structure with strategy -- Secrecy and compartmentalization -- Evolution and growth of organizations -- Underground and aboveground connections -- Criminal connections -- PIRA as a regional insurgency: -- Evolution and growth of the organization -- Command and control -- Underground and aboveground connections -- Criminal connections -- Communist insurgencies as organizations: -- Command and control -- International command and control: -- Chain of command between committee levels -- Role of self-criticism sessions -- Underground and aboveground connections: -- Parallel structures -- Infiltration of mass organizations and use of "front" organizations -- Methods of controlling mass organizations -- United front activities -- Aligning of structure to strategy -- Al Qaeda as a decentralized network: -- Secrecy and compartmentalization -- Evolution and growth of the organization -- Command and control -- Aligning structure to strategy -- Underground and aboveground connectivity -- Criminal connections -- Chapter 4: Leadership: -- Transactional and transformational leadership -- Charismatic leadership in undergrounds -- Profiling leaders: -- Trait/motivational approaches -- Cognitive approaches -- Psychodynamic approaches -- Personological approaches -- Case study: Dr Ayman Al-Zawahiri -- Targeting leaders -- Summary -- Part 2: Motivation: -- Chapter 5: Joining, staying in, and leaving the underground: -- Reasons for joining: -- Recruitment: -- Recruitment in rural insurgencies: Huks and the Viet Minh -- PIRA recruitment of republican sympathizers -- Campus recruitment by EIG: filling a void -- Ideology -- Qutbism: ideology of the modern global Salafist Jihad -- Affiliative factors -- Reasons for staying -- Reasons for leaving: -- Defection -- Disengagement -- Deradicalization -- Reintegration -- Insurgent transitions -- Summary -- Chapter 6: Group dynamics and radicalization: -- Social psychology of group conflict: -- Social identity groups: categorization and salience: -- Stability -- Salience -- Conflict -- In-group formation: -- In-group biases -- Out-group stereotypes and discrimination -- Competition between groups -- Mechanisms of group radicalization: -- Escalation of in-group/out-group conflicts -- Radicalization through isolation -- Radicalization under threat -- Radicalization through condensation or splitting -- Radicalization in competition for the same base of support -- Radicalization through hate: -- Rhetoric of hate: dehumanization and "selective moral disengagement" -- Escalation of violent actions -- Radicalization through martyrdom -- Summary -- Chapter 7: Psychological risk factors: -- Introduction: Is the disease model applicable? -- Axis I disorders and "Lone Wolf" terrorists -- Axis II: Developmental and personality disorders -- Suicidality and suicide bombers -- Emotional vulnerability -- Youth -- Personal connection to a grievance (political or otherwise) -- Vicarious experience of grievance -- Humiliation -- Mechanisms -- Summary -- Part 3: Underground Psychological Operations: -- Chapter 8: Insurgent use of media: traditional, broadcast, and Internet: -- Importance of media to insurgencies -- Traditional media -- Global broadcast media: -- Media dilemmas and responses -- Insurgent-owned broadcast media -- Insurgent use of the Internet: -- Properties of the Internet: -- Inexpensive -- Decentralized -- Anonymous -- Uses of the Internet: -- Publicity and communications -- Targeting the enemy -- Recruitment and radicalization -- Training -- Fundraising -- Command and control -- Summary -- Chapter 9: Psychology of influence: -- Psychological operations -- Aspects of influence -- Influence as a social process: -- Interpersonal influence -- Social pressures and social networks -- Social identity and influence -- Diffusion of innovation -- Influence as an individual process: -- Rumors as an example of message transmittal -- Promoting the understanding and retention of messages: -- Personal relevance -- Evaluating message content -- Message repetition -- Presenting one versus both sides of an argument: message inoculation -- Combining words and actions: -- Cognitive dissonance -- Persuasion techniques -- Armed propaganda -- Reciprocity and obligation -- Coercion and private beliefs -- Role of narratives in justifying insurgent movements -- Summary -- Chapter 10: Nonviolent resistance: -- Objectives -- Techniques: -- Attention-getting devices -- Noncooperation -- Civil disobedience -- Organization -- Legitimacy: -- Normative factors -- Mystical factors -- Consensual validation -- Communication and propaganda -- Training -- Riots and demonstrations: -- Colombia (1948) -- Seattle, Washington (1999) -- Shadow government structure -- Summary -- Chapter 11: Terrorism: -- Objectives of terrorism: -- Disruption of socioeconomic and political status quo -- Demonstration of strength: -- Strategic risks -- Punishment and retaliation -- Maintenance of security: -- Terrorist oaths -- Enforcing squads -- Provocation -- Considerations of terrorism: -- Unity of effort -- Franchising terror -- Suicide terrorism -- Terrorism planning: -- Target selection -- Intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance -- Rehearsals -- Execution -- Escape and evasion -- Rationalizing terrorism -- Terrorist threats: -- Specific threats -- General threats -- Psychological effects of terror: -- Terror management theory -- Individual responses -- Group responses -- Summary -- Glossary -- Part 1: Abbreviations and acronyms -- Part 2: Terms and definitions
Control code
870706927
Dimensions
25 cm
Edition
Second edition.
Extent
xxii, 372 pages
Media category
unmediated
Media MARC source
rdamedia.
Other physical details
illustrations
System control number
tmp97418335

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